Organic Chemistry Undergraduate Laboratories


     Many of the operations carried out in a laboratory experiment require heating. Although there are numerous methods available, reaction conditions and chemical and physical properties of the materials make certain heating methods preferable to others. Since most organic compounds, especially the commonly used solvents such as hexane and ether, are flammable, a flameless method is generally preferred.

The following equipment are used for heating in the organic laboratory

     A steam bath is often used to heat solutions that boil below about 90C, or to heat a mixture to approximately 100C. The laboratories are supplied with steam from a central boiler and in this case use of the steam bath eliminates the hazards of a flame. Connect the steam line to the top inlet on the bath. The bottom inlet is attached to a hose, which drains into the sink. Any water that condenses in the bath while you're using it will drain out. Usually, steam baths have concentric rings as covers. You can control the "size" of the bath by adding or removing rings.

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